Security guards monitor sites to prevent theft, vandalism, fire and other harmful situations. They’re responsible for maintaining the safety of employees, residents, guests and all people within an assigned location. Security guards may be required to use force against violators, and some guards are armed with handguns, handcuffs, pepper spray and other law enforcement tools.
Security Guard Requirements
In many states, security guards are required to obtain licensure. Eligibility varies by state, but most licensure applicants must be 18 or older, have a clean criminal record and pass a drug test. Security guards may be required to complete formal training in a classroom setting. Licensure qualifications are generally stricter for armed security guards, who must also obtain firearms licensure.
There are no strict education requirements for becoming a security guard. Employers prefer to hire applicants with at least high school diplomas or the equivalent. Some positions, such as those in casino security or investigation, require postsecondary degrees or certificates.
Some community colleges and technical schools offer security guard training programs that lead to certificates. Many of these programs are designed to fulfill state licensure requirements, and vary in length according to state regulations. They typically consist of a basic training course that covers first aid, patrol techniques, disaster response, crowd control and ethics, among other fundamental topics. Certificate programs’ curricula may also incorporate hands-on, practical training on job sites and yearly continuing education courses.
Certain employers may prefer applicants with postsecondary degrees. Undergraduate degrees in criminal justice, law enforcement science or other applicable fields may give security guards an upper hand in the search for employment. Associate of Applied Science in Criminal Justice programs, for example, prepare students for entry-level positions in law enforcement. Courses may include investigation techniques, security management, psychology, juvenile justice and criminal law.
Security guards typically obtain instruction on the job, in which case training duration and depth vary by employer and job duties. They may learn protection and defense methods, as well as how to write reports, deliver first aid and handle emergency situations. Security guards who carry weapons generally complete more exhaustive training than those who are unarmed, and they may learn firearm safety and force laws. Those who work in high-security settings often endure extensive training followed by strict supervision on the job.
American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) International Training Guidelines
Some employers implement the training standards set forth by ASIS International, which recommends that trainees receive 48 hours of instruction in the first 100 days of service. Under ASIS International guidelines, trainees must pass examinations that assess proficiency in topics like crime prevention, emergency procedures, evidence management and report writing. They may also be required to complete annual continuing education courses.